The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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A economia brasileira às vésperas das eleições de 2002

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Cadernos Adenauer 3, 2002: 79-102. Conferência pronunciada no Simpósio sobre as Perspectivas das Eleições Brasileiras, patrocinado pela Fundação Adenauer. Berlim, maio de 2002. Revisada em agosto 2002.


Abstract. The probability that the official candidate, José Serra, is defeated in the next elections by the oppositions candidate Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, is high. While the Cardoso administration (1995-2002) was successful in defining and implementing social policy, its economic outcomes were frustrating. The decision of setting high inflation as the major problem to be tackled instead of achieving equilibrium in foreign accounts represented a major macroeconomic mistake, which can be explained by the Second Washington Consensus. This consensus proposed, in the 1990s, that highly indebted countries should grow counting on foreign savings, although this is not the experience among OECD countries. The outcome was to evaluate the Real, to artificially increase wages and consumption, so that instead of growth what we have is increased indebtedness. Why was this flopped strategy adopted? Rich countries interests are not difficult to guess. On the part of Brazil, the only explanation is Brazilian elites alienation in relation to the countrys national interest. As a final outcome, the Cardoso administration ends with another balance of payments crisis.

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