The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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Nação, sociedade civil, Estado e estado-nação: uma perspectiva histórica

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Texto de Discussão da EESP/FGV n. 189, maio de 2009.


Nation and civil society are forms of politically organized societies, the state, the central institution, and the nation-state the basic territorial-political unity that the Capitalist Revolution originates. Each country of a nation-state is formed of a nation or a civil society, a state, and a territory. Each state is the expression of its respective form of politically organized society, but the relation between the state and society is explicitly dialectic in so far as each national society creates its state to regulate it. Since these definitions are historical, the forms of society and, correspondently, the forms of state change historically. The paper summarizes these historical forms.


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